Brexit is mainly the political action taken by the UK to promote Britain's departure from the EU, so that the UK is no longer bound by EU law, European single market and certain free trade agreements, and can take back control of immigration policy. . "Brexit" in English means Brexit, which is a combination of the first two letters of the British "Britain" and the departure "exit". However, the Brexit date was repeatedly postponed because the British government could not convince the parliament to accept the agreement negotiated with the EU. Today's latest Brexit date is scheduled for October 31, 2019.
In the referendum on June 23, 2016, 51.9% of British voters voted to leave the European Union, and most of them supported suburban voters from England and Wales who left the EU (Greater London and other major cities outside England).
After the referendum, the British domestic legislation was passed to the "Exit EU Law", which was signed and entered into force by the British monarch. According to the decree, the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU at 23:00 on March 29, 2019. However, on March 21, 2019, with the consent of the British government and the consent of all EU member states, the Brexit date was postponed to May 22, 2019, provided that the British Parliament needed to take off before midnight on March 29. European agreement, if the conditions are not met, on April 12, 2019, the United Kingdom is legally separated from the EU.
On March 29, 2017, the British government led by Teresa May officially triggered Article 50 of the "European Union Basic Treaty". The UK will officially leave the EU on March 29, 2019, regardless of whether it has reached an agreement with the EU. The withdrawal of Brexit is legally feasible. British Prime Minister Teresa May announced in May that after leaving the EU, the UK will not seek to maintain its position as a single European market or a permanent member of the Customs Union. She promised to abolish the 1972 "European Community Law" and incorporate existing EU law into the UK's domestic legal system. The Brexit negotiations were officially launched on June 19, 2017.
On January 1, 1973, the United Kingdom joined the European Community. The 1975 referendum confirmed that the United Kingdom became a member of the European Community. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Brexit proposal was mainly proposed by the Labor Party and trade unionists. Since the 1990s, the main proponents have been the newly formed British Independence Party (UKIP) and the Conservative Party's Brexit. Brexit supporters span a broad political spectrum. Support for Brexit includes supporters of the Brexit Party, the British Independence Party, the majority of the Conservatives and the Minority Labour Party.
Comparison of vote rates in the 1975 referendum and the 2016 referendum to stay in the EC/EU
The United Kingdom joined the European Community (predecessor of the European Union) in 1973 and held a referendum in 1975 whether it should remain in the European Community. As a result, more than half of the voters supported the stay in the European Community.
However, there is always a strong European scepticism in the UK (against the EU and its predecessor, the European Community). No matter whether the Conservative Party or the Labor Party is on the EU issue, the party is not uniform (but in general, the majority of the Labour Party members support the EU, and conservative The party has different opinions, and both support and opposition to the EU have a certain ratio. However, the Conservative Party’s consensus is to oppose the United Kingdom to transfer more power to the EU and demand more power from the EU, such as re-implementing immigration and border control. Power), and there are also political parties that the British Independent Party explicitly advocates withdrawing from the EU.
In 2013, British Prime Minister David Cameron said that if the Conservative Party wins in the 2015 general election, it will hold a referendum on whether to withdraw from the EU before 2017. After the Conservative Party won the general election in 2015, Cameron immediately announced that the British withdrawal from the EU referendum will be held on June 23, 2016, and indicated that it supports the UK to stay in the EU and actually leads the "Leaving Europe" camp. .
After the date of the announcement of the Brexit referendum by David Cameron, the Brexit camp has not had any iconic representative to promote the Brexit, such as Nigel Farage, the leader of the British Independent Party who has been pushing the UK away from the EU for many years. It has long been a newcomer in China, but it has not been a mainstream politician in the UK. It is not representative. Until the mayor of London, Boris Johnson, announced his support for leaving the EU, the support for the Brexit camp has increased significantly. Johnson expressed his support for leaving the EU. Later, the Conservative Party supporters who had always opposed the EU were willing to ignore Cameron’s advice and support the Brexit. Johnson also actually became the representative of the leader of the “Brexit” camp.
Britain to stay in the EU referendum:
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum to leave the European Union. The result of the vote was “out of the EU”. Shortly after the results of the referendum were announced, the British Prime Minister David Cameron, who claimed to stay in the EU, resigned.
Cameron supported the stay in Europe before the referendum, and Cameron announced his resignation as the British Prime Minister after the referendum on June 23, and officially resigned on July 13, when the British Home Secretary Teresa · May succeeds Cameron as the new British prime minister.
In January 2017, the British government submitted a draft of the “Exit EU Notice Act” to the House of Commons, which authorized the British government to initiate a process of separation from the European Union. On February 1, the House of Commons voted on the second reading of the bill, with 498 votes and 114 votes against . On February 8, the House of Commons voted for the third time, with 494 votes and 122 votes against.
Start the Brexit process:
The House of Lords voted on March 1 and 7 to join two amendments, and the bill was sent back to the House of Commons for reconsideration. The House of Commons on March 13 by 335 votes to 287 votes to veto the protection of the House of Lords in the British EU citizens to amend the terms, and 331 votes to 286 votes to veto the Congress by the House of Lords can veto the Brexit clause, the bill again Submitted to the House of Lords for consideration. The House of Lords voted to abandon the two amendments on the evening of March 13th, allowing the bill to be formally passed in Congress. On March 16, Queen Elizabeth II signed the decree . On March 20th, the British Prime Minister’s Office announced that it will officially start the Brexit process on March 29.
On March 28th, British Prime Minister Teresa May signed a six-page notification letter to the European Union in the Prime Minister's Office. The United Kingdom decided to start the Brexit procedure in accordance with Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. On March 29, the notice was handed over to the President of the European Council, Tusk, by the British Ambassador to the European Union Barrow.
On December 8, 2017, the UK and the EU reached a framework for the Brexit framework, paving the way for trade negotiations.
On November 13, 2018, after more than a year of negotiations, the UK and the EU reached an agreement on the content of the Brexit agreement.
According to the draft agreement, the UK will withdraw from the EU on March 29, 2019, followed by a transition period. During the transition period, the UK will temporarily stay in the EU internal market and customs union. The transition period will last until December 31, 2020. The UK and Europe are striving to sign trade agreements within six months of the end of the transition period. The agreement has not been reached or the UK has requested it before July 1, 2020 to extend the transition period of the Brexit or to allow the entire UK to remain in the EU's customs union. The transition period can be extended once. After the transition period has been extended, the UK must continue to recognize the EU rules, but does not have its own voting rights and is obliged to continue to pay EU membership fees. The United Kingdom concludes an "international agreement" in the field of trade during the transition period and can only enter into force after the end of the transition period.
EU citizens living in the UK are guaranteed health care, pensions and other social benefits. It is also true for Britons who have traveled to other EU countries during the transition period .
After the end of the transition period, the UK still has to fulfill all its financial obligations as a member of the European Union. The exact amount of funds has not been determined. By 2020, the UK will continue to participate in the EU's annual financial plan.
Even if the UK and the EU did not negotiate a future trade agreement at the end of the "Brexit" transition period, the border between Britain's Northern Ireland and the EU member state Ireland will remain in a state of no customs and border inspection. Generally referred to as the “Irish Border Protection Measures”.
On November 14, the draft of the Brexit agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union was passed in the British cabinet.
After the UK and the EU reached a draft of the Brexit agreement, the opponents were strongly dissatisfied. Dominique Rab, the minister of Brexit, who took office only four months, resigned on the grounds of dissatisfaction with the draft, and the Minister of Work and Pensions, Esther McVeigh, and two other sub-long-ranking officials also resigned . Dominique Rab said in a statement that he could not support the "Brexit" draft agreement with "conscience". He criticized the draft for resolving the Irish border issue and the UK's continued stay in the EU Customs Union, arguing that it would not allow Britain to truly "Brexit." Esther McVeigh said in a statement that the "Brexit" agreement did not respect the outcome of the referendum in the UK. Jacob Rees-Mogg, a senior member of the Conservative Party and a promoter of the "Brexit" movement, publicly proposed a "no confidence vote" against the Prime Minister in the party. He believed that the "Brexit" agreement was the UK's The concession on key rights." However, the two major cabinet members, including Michael Goff, believe that the current removal of the prime minister is out of date.
The Brexit process:
On November 25th, the leaders of the 27 EU countries unanimously adopted the draft Brexit agreement. The UK survey indicated that 52% of the respondents supported the draft Brexit agreement between Teresa May and the EU, with 19% opposed.
On January 15, 2019, the draft Brexit agreement was rejected by the British Parliament with 432 votes and 202 votes.
On January 29, 2019, the British Parliament debated and voted on seven amendments to the EU-related agreement. Two of the amendments were passed and the other five failed. One of the amendments adopted was to exclude “no agreement to leave the EU”, but the amendment has a purely suggestive nature; the other is to call for the removal of Irish border safeguards  and to use technology for convenient border inspections. The alternative arrangement "resolves the issue of the British-Irish border. British Prime Minister Teresa May will travel to Brussels, the European Union headquarters, to restart negotiations on the draft Brexit agreement, but European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said in Brussels on February 7 that the EU will not "Brexit" with the UK. Agreement renegotiated.
On March 6, 2019, the United Kingdom proposed that if the Irish border safeguards were unfortunately initiated, the independent arbitration commission responsible for the UK-European mediation should be authorized to decide when to terminate the measure. However, the EU has determined that this is beyond the scope of the committee's “ensure that the parties follow the rules” and rejects the British proposal.
On March 11, 2019, the attitude of the EU suddenly softened and agreed to amend the "Brexit" agreement. The latest Brexit amendments will prevent the UK Northern Ireland region from being “indefinitely staying” in the EU after the “Brexit” transition period.
On March 12th, the British House of Commons voted again to reject the revised "Brexit" agreement between the British government and the EU with a vote of 391 votes against 242 votes.
On March 13, 2019, the British House of Commons voted to support the complete exclusion of non-agreement of Brexit to prevent the UK from withdrawing from the EU without any agreement on March 29. In the end, with the result of 321 support and 278 votes against the vote, the United Kingdom completely ruled out the non-agreement of Brexit.
On March 14, 2019, the British House of Commons decided to postpone the Brexit deadline from the original March 29 to June 30 by postponing the Brexit motion with a vote of 412 in favor and 202 against. However, according to Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, the proposal requires the consent of all EU member states. At present, Brussels has indicated that it will discuss the UK’s request to postpone the Brexit. France says that if the UK does not come up with any plans, it will not agree with the United Kingdom. Claim.
On March 19, 2019, the British House of Commons Speaker John Bokau quoted the British Parliament rules passed 400 years ago, announcing that the draft of the Brexit agreement had not changed substantially, and refused to accept the draft Brexit agreement in Parliament. Second vote.
On March 21, 2019, the leaders of the 27 EU countries agreed to postpone the Brexit until May 22, but only if the British Parliament needs to pass the Brexit agreement within a week. If the British Parliament is unable to pass the Brexit agreement within the next week, the UK will leave the EU on April 12 according to law.
On March 25th, the House of Commons of the British Parliament passed the amendment with 329 to 302 votes, which led the parliament to replace the government to lead the Brexit process.
On March 27th, the House of Commons of the British Parliament confirmed the removal of the original Brexit date from the law with 441 votes in favor and 105 votes against it, and agreed to postpone the Brexit date.
On March 29, 2019, the British government's draft of the Brexit Agreement was rejected by the House of Representatives for the third time with 286 votes in favor and 344 votes against. The UK must propose a new plan by April 12, otherwise it will automatically leave the EU.
On April 1, 2019, due to the unsuccessful agreement of the British Parliament, the European Parliament will hold a special meeting on April 10 to discuss the Brexit.
On April 3, 2019, the House of Commons of the British Parliament voted with 310 votes, 310 votes against it, and the result of the vote against Speaker John Boko decided to continue to indicate the Brexit program from April 8. vote. The last deadlock in the House of Commons and the vote of the key vote by the Speaker appeared in 1993; ironically, the issue at the time was the Maastricht Treaty that formed the cornerstone of the European Union. On the same day, the House of Commons supported 313 votes and 312 votes against asking Prime Minister Teresa May to seek a further extension of Brexit.
On April 4, 2019, British Prime Minister Teresa May announced that he would once again seek to delay the Brexit in order to gain time to reach a Brexit plan with the opposition British Labor Party.
On April 10, 2019, the EU took the initiative to express to the UK that the Brexit deadline could be significantly extended to October 31 instead of the original June 30. It also allowed the UK to leave the EU at any time after the British Parliament officially passed the Brexit Agreement. .
On May 24, 2019, Teresa May announced that he would resign from the position of Conservative Party leader on June 7 due to the fact that British Prime Minister Teresa May could not reach a consensus with Westminster on the "Decoup Agreement". . It also announced that it will start the election of the party leader on June 10, and will serve as the prime minister in the capacity of the caretaker cabinet.
On June 7, Teresa May resigned as a party leader.
On July 23, 2019, after the election of the Conservative Party members, the parliamentary ruling party voted, the former British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson was elected as the new Conservative Party leader with more than half of the votes. At the same time, Theresa May officially resigned as prime minister, and assigned responsibility and Brexit to Boris.
On August 20th, Prime Minister Boris Johnson asked the EU to cancel the Irish border protection clause from the Brexit agreement and was rejected by the EU.
By convention, the British Parliament has entered a recess after September to open a new session. On August 28, 2019, Boris Johnson announced that he had requested the Queen to extend the three-week recess for three weeks, that is, from September 10 to October 14. Since then, when Members want to seek legislation to prevent non-agreement of Brexit before the Brexit deadline on October 31, it will be quite difficult in terms of time. Johnson’s move led to criticism from the Europeans that Johnson was against democracy; more than 1 million British netizens signed an online petition against the suspension of parliamentary operations; more than 30 cities in the UK