凯石外汇受澳洲ASIC授权和监管: AFSL(494799)

英国脱欧

作者:凯石 | 2019-09-27 13:23

摘要: 英国脱欧即Brexit主要是指英国现时已采取的政治行动用以推动英国脱离欧盟,使英国不再受欧盟法律、欧洲单一市场及若干自由贸易协议约束,并可取回对移民政策的控制权。英语中“

 
英国脱欧即Brexit主要是指英国现时已采取的政治行动用以推动英国脱离欧盟,使英国不再受欧盟法律、欧洲单一市场及若干自由贸易协议约束,并可取回对移民政策的控制权。英语中“Brexit”意指英国脱欧,由英国“Britain”的前两个字母和离去“exit”结合而成。但由于英国政府无法说服议会接受与欧盟谈判达成的协议,令脱欧日期被一再推迟。如今最新的脱欧日期定于2019年10月31日。
 
在2016年6月23日的全民公投中,有51.9%的英国选民投票支持离开欧盟,大部分支持离开欧盟的来自英格兰及威尔士的郊区选民(大伦敦及其他英格兰大城市以外的地区)。
 
公投后,促成英国国内立法通过《退出欧盟法令》,该法令已由英国国君签署并生效,根据法令,英国将在2019年3月29日23时退出欧盟。但在2019年3月21日,在英国政府要求以及欧盟全体成员国的同意下,脱欧日期被延后至2019年5月22日,条件是英国议会需要在3月29日午夜前通过脱欧协议,若该条件无法达到,则于2019年4月12日,英国依法脱离欧盟。
 
2017年3月29日,特雷莎·梅领导的英国政府正式触发“欧洲联盟基本条约”第五十条,不论是否与欧盟达成协议,英国将于2019年3月29日正式离开欧盟。撤销退欧在法律层面上是可行的。英国首相特雷莎·梅5月宣布,离开欧盟后,英国不会寻求维持在欧洲单一市场或关税同盟常任理事国位置。她承诺将废除1972年“欧洲共同体法”,并将现行的欧盟法律纳入英国国内法律体系中。退欧谈判于2017年6月19日正式启动。
 
1973年1月1日,英国加入欧洲共同体,1975年全民公投确认了英国成为欧共体会员国。20世纪70年代和80年代,退欧提议主要是由工党和工会人员提出。从二十世纪九十年代起,主要提议者是新成立的英国独立党(UKIP)和保守党的脱欧派。脱欧支持者横跨广泛政治光谱。支持脱欧的包括英国脱欧党、英国独立党、多数保守党与少数工党的支持者。
 
1975年公投和2016年公投支持留在欧共体/欧盟的得票率比较
英国在1973年加入欧洲共同体(欧洲联盟前身),并在1975年举行了是否应该继续留在欧共体的公投,结果过半数投票者支持留在欧共体。
 
然而英国国内始终存在强烈的欧洲怀疑主义的声音(反对欧盟及其前身欧共体),无论保守党还是工党在欧盟问题上,党内均不统一(惟总体上工党多数党员支持欧盟,而保守党则意见不一,支持及反对欧盟的皆占一定比率,但保守党的共识是反对英国再转移更多权力至欧盟,并要求从欧盟取回更多权力,如重新实行移民及边境管制的权力),且也有如英国独立党明确主张退出欧盟的政党存在。
 
2013年,英国首相大卫·卡梅伦表示如果保守党在2015年大选获胜,将在2017年之前举办是否退出欧盟的公投。保守党在2015年胜出大选,卡梅隆在与欧盟达成协议后,随即宣布英国退出欧盟公投将在2016年6月23日举行,并表明支持英国留在欧盟,实际上领导“留欧”阵营。
 
脱欧阵营在戴维·卡梅伦宣布脱欧公投的日期后,一直未有具标志性的代表人物推动脱欧,如多年来一直推动英国脱离欧盟的英国独立党党魁奈杰尔·法拉奇在国内早已非新鲜人物,但亦一直并非英国的主流政治人物,缺乏代表性,直至伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊宣布表态支持脱离欧盟后,脱欧阵营的支持度大幅增加,约翰逊表态支持脱离欧盟后,使原先一直以来反对欧盟的保守党支持者愿意不理会卡梅伦的劝喻支持脱欧,约翰逊亦实际上成为领导“脱欧”阵营的代表人物。
 
英国去留欧盟公投:
2016年6月23日英国举行脱离欧盟的全民公投。投票结果为“脱离欧盟”。公投结果公布后不久,主张英国留在欧盟的首相戴维·卡梅伦提出辞职。
 
卡梅伦时期
由于卡梅伦在脱欧公投前支持留欧,在公投结果于6月23日出炉后卡梅伦宣布辞去英国首相一职,并于7月13日正式离职,时任英国内政大臣特蕾莎·梅接替卡梅伦成为新一任英国首相。
 
特雷莎·梅时期
2017年1月,英国政府向下议院提交《退出欧盟通知法令》草案,该法案授权英国政府启动脱离欧洲联盟的程序。2月1日下议院对法案进行二读表决,以498票支持和114票反对通过[12]。2月8日下议院进行三读表决,以494票支持和122票反对通过。
 
启动脱欧程序:
上议院于3月1日和7日表决通过加入两项修订,法案被发回下议院再议。下议院在3月13日以335票对287票否决由上议院加入的保障在英欧盟公民修订条款,又以331票对286票否决由上议院加入的国会可否决脱欧条款,法案又再送交上议院审议。上议院于3月13日晚间表决放弃加入该两项修订,让法案正式在国会通过。3月16日,女王伊丽莎白二世签署法令[16]。3月20日,英国首相府宣布,将在3月29日正式启动脱欧程序。
 
3月28日,英国首相特雷莎·梅在首相府签署六页长的通知信知会欧盟,英国决定按照《里斯本条约》第50条启动脱欧程序。3月29日,该通知信由英国驻欧盟大使巴罗亲手交予欧盟理事会主席图斯克。
 
2017年12月8日,英国与欧盟达成脱欧框架协议,从而为贸易谈判铺平了道路。
 
2018年11月13日,经历一年多的谈判,英国与欧盟就脱欧协议内容达成一致。
 
根据协议草案内容,英国将于2019年3月29日退出欧盟,接下来是一个过渡期。过渡期内,英国将暂时留在欧盟内部市场和关税同盟。过渡期持续到2020年12月31日结束。英欧争取在过渡期结束前6个月内签署贸易协定。协定未达成或英国在2020年7月1日前提出要求,可延长脱欧过渡期或让整个英国继续留在欧盟的关税联盟。过渡期可延长一次。过渡期延长之后,英国必须继续承认欧盟的规则,但没有自己的投票权,并有义务继续支付欧盟会员费。英国在过渡期在贸易领域等缔结“国际协定”,只能在过渡期结束后才能生效。
在英国生活的欧盟公民,他们的医保、退休金和其它社会福利均有保障。对在过渡阶段才去其它欧盟国家的英国人来说亦然[21]。
过渡期结束后,英国仍要履行作为欧盟成员国时所承诺的一切财政义务。具体的资金数额尚未确定。在2020年前,英国还将继续参加欧盟每年的财政计划。
即使英国与欧盟在“脱欧”过渡期结束时未谈妥未来贸易协定,英国的北爱尔兰与欧盟成员国爱尔兰之间的边界也将依旧维持不设海关和边检的状态。一般称为“爱尔兰边境保障措施”。
11月14日,英国和欧盟达成的脱欧协议草案在英国内阁获得通过。
 
英国与欧盟达成脱欧协议草案后,引发反对者强烈不满。上任仅4个月的脱欧事务大臣多米尼克·拉布便以不满草案为由请辞,工作和养老金部大臣艾斯特·麦克维和另外2名次长级官员亦相继辞职[21]。多米尼克·拉布发表声明说,自己不能“昧着良心”支持“脱欧”协议草案。他批评草案中有关解决爱尔兰边界问题及英国继续留在欧盟关税同盟等内容,认为这将无法让英国真正“脱欧”。艾斯特·麦克维在声明中说,“脱欧”协议并未尊重英国全民公投的结果。保守党资深议员、“脱欧”运动推动者雅各布·里斯-莫格在党内公开提出对首相的“不信任投票动议”,认为“脱欧”协议草案是英国对欧盟在“各项关键权利上的退让”。但两名主要内阁成员包括迈克尔·戈夫在内的脱欧派人士则认为现阶段撤换首相不合时宜。


英国脱欧进程:
11月25日,欧盟27国领导人一致通过英国脱欧协议草案。英国的调查指52%受访民众支持特雷莎·梅和欧盟达成之脱欧协议草案,反对的有19%。
 
2019年1月15日,英国脱欧协议草案在英国议会以432票反对,202票支持,未获通过。
 
2019年1月29日,英国议会就7项涉脱欧协议的修正案展开辩论并进行表决。其中2项修正案获通过,另外5项则宣告失败。通过的修正案其中之一是排除“无协议脱欧”,但该修正案具有纯建议性质;另一项是呼吁移除爱尔兰边境保障措施[22],改以运用科技进行便捷边境检查的“替代安排”解决英爱边境问题。英国首相特雷莎·梅将前往欧盟总部布鲁塞尔就脱欧协议草案重启谈判,但欧盟委员会主席让-克洛德·容克2月7日在布鲁塞尔表示,欧盟不会与英国就“脱欧”协议重新谈判。
 
2019年3月6日,英国提议,如果在爱尔兰边境保障措施不幸启动的背景下,应授权负责英欧调停的独立仲裁委员会决定何时终止该措施。然而欧盟认定,这超出委员会“确保双方遵循规则”的职权范围,拒绝英国方面提议。
 
2019年3月11日,欧盟态度突然软化,同意对“脱欧”协议进行修改。最新的脱欧协议修改将防止英国北爱尔兰地区在“脱欧”过渡期结束后出现被“无限期留在”欧盟内的情况。
 
3月12日,英国下议院投票再次以391票反对、242票支持的投票结果否决了英国政府与欧盟达成的修改后的“脱欧”协议。
 
2019年3月13日,英国下议院投票表决是否支持完全排除无协议脱欧,以防止英国在3月29日没有任何协议的情况下退出欧盟。最终以321支持、278票反对的投票结果要求英国完全排除无协议脱欧。
 
2019年3月14日,英国下议院以412赞成、202反对的表决结果,通过推迟英国脱欧动议,决定将英国脱欧的最后期限由原先的3月29日推迟到6月30日。但根据《里斯本条约》第50条,该提议需要欧盟全部会员国同意,目前布鲁塞尔方面表示要研讨英国提出的推迟脱欧请求,法国则表示如果英国没有拿出任何计划,则不会同意英国的要求。
 
2019年3月19日,英国下议院议长约翰·伯考引用400年前通过的英国议会规则,宣布因英国政府的脱欧协议草案未有实质性改变,拒绝脱欧协议草案在议会进行第三次投票。
 
2019年3月21日,欧盟27国领导人同意英国脱欧延期至5月22日,但条件是在此后一个星期内英国议会需通过脱欧协议。而若英国议会无法在接下来的一周内通过脱欧协议,则英国于4月12日依法脱离欧盟。
英国脱欧
 
3月25日,英国国会下议院以329对302票通过修正案,使议会代替政府主导脱欧进程。
 
3月27日,英国国会下议院以441票支持、105票反对确认将原先的脱欧日期从法律中删除,并同意推迟脱欧日期。
 
2019年3月29日,英国政府的脱欧协议草案以286票赞成、344票反对第三次被下议院否决,至此英国必须在4月12日前提出新方案,否则依法将自动脱离欧盟。
 
2019年4月1日,欧盟议会由于英国国会未通过协议,将于4月10日召开特别会议,讨论英国脱欧事宜。
 
2019年4月3日,英国国会下议院以310票支持,310票反对,并由议长约翰·伯考投下反对票的结果,决定从4月8日起不再就脱欧方案继续进行指示性投票。上次下议院出现僵局并由议长投下关键一票的情况出现在1993年;讽刺的是,当时讨论的议题正是构成欧盟基石的马斯特里赫特条约。同日,下议院以313票支持,312票反对要求首相特雷莎·梅向欧盟寻求再次延期脱欧。
 
2019年4月4日,英国首相特雷莎·梅宣布将再次寻求延迟脱欧,以争取时间与反对党英国工党达成一份脱欧方案。
 
2019年4月10日,欧盟主动向英国表示可以将脱欧限期大幅延后至10月31日,而非原先之6月30日,亦允许英国于英国国会正式通过脱欧协议后随时脱欧。
 
2019年5月24日,由于英国首相特雷莎·梅就“脱欧协议”之相关内容无法与西敏宫达成共识,特雷莎·梅宣布将在6月7日辞去保守党党魁的职位。并且宣布将在6月10日启动党魁选举相关事宜,而此期间将以看守内阁的身份担任首相一职。
 
6月7日,特雷莎·梅如期辞去党魁职位。
 
2019年7月23日,经保守党党员的全选,议会执政党表决,英国前外交大臣鲍里斯·约翰逊以过半的得票率当选新任保守党领袖。同时特蕾莎·梅正式辞任首相一职,将职责与脱欧事务全权交于鲍里斯。
 
约翰逊时期
8月20日,首相鲍里斯·约翰逊要求欧盟从英国脱欧协议中取消爱尔兰边境保障条款,遭到欧盟拒绝。
 
按惯例,英国议会进入9月后休会以开启新一届会期。2019年8月28日,鲍里斯·约翰逊宣布他已请求女王将原本休会3周时间延长为5周,即9月10日起休会至10月14日。由于届时议员想要在10月31日脱欧大限前寻求立法阻止无协议脱欧,从时间上来说,将相当困难。约翰逊此举招致留欧派批评,认为约翰逊违背民主;同时超过100万英国网民签署一项网上请愿,反对暂停议会运作;英国30多个城镇游行示威抗议约翰逊超长时间议会暂停举动;此外有反脱欧活动人士到法院就休会提起司法复核诉讼。[54]议会会期通常持续一年,但2017年至2019年的该届会期达两年,是英国内战以来最长的一次。9月2日,英国首相约翰逊在首相府发表声明说,在任何情况下他都不会要求欧盟推迟英国脱欧,英国将在10月31日如期脱离欧盟[57]。针对约翰逊蓄意延长议会休会一事,9月3日,保守党下院议员奥利弗·莱特温提交申请,要求立即就是否从约翰逊手中夺取议会议程控制权进行投票。最终以328票赞成、301票反对的表决结果,通过从约翰逊手中夺取议会议程控制权的动议。约翰逊随后将倒戈党员开除。
 
9月4日,议会下院投票通过了一项阻挡无协议脱欧的议案,除非2019年10月19日前议会投票通过政府与欧盟达成的脱欧协议或无协议脱欧,否则脱欧日期推迟至2020年1月31日。首相约翰逊随即要求10月15日提前举行大选,但这项动议最终并未获得三分之二的议员的支持,动议未通过。
 
9月6日,英格兰及威尔士高等法院驳回“留欧”人士反对暂停议会的请求,裁定首相鲍里斯·约翰逊要求议会休会不违法[61]。但苏格兰高等民事法院和英国最高法院先后裁定,首相约翰逊实施议会休会的举措违法。9月25日,英国议会复会。

English Version:

Brexit is mainly the political action taken by the UK to promote Britain's departure from the EU, so that the UK is no longer bound by EU law, European single market and certain free trade agreements, and can take back control of immigration policy. . "Brexit" in English means Brexit, which is a combination of the first two letters of the British "Britain" and the departure "exit". However, the Brexit date was repeatedly postponed because the British government could not convince the parliament to accept the agreement negotiated with the EU. Today's latest Brexit date is scheduled for October 31, 2019.
 
In the referendum on June 23, 2016, 51.9% of British voters voted to leave the European Union, and most of them supported suburban voters from England and Wales who left the EU (Greater London and other major cities outside England).
 
After the referendum, the British domestic legislation was passed to the "Exit EU Law", which was signed and entered into force by the British monarch. According to the decree, the United Kingdom will withdraw from the EU at 23:00 on March 29, 2019. However, on March 21, 2019, with the consent of the British government and the consent of all EU member states, the Brexit date was postponed to May 22, 2019, provided that the British Parliament needed to take off before midnight on March 29. European agreement, if the conditions are not met, on April 12, 2019, the United Kingdom is legally separated from the EU.
 
On March 29, 2017, the British government led by Teresa May officially triggered Article 50 of the "European Union Basic Treaty". The UK will officially leave the EU on March 29, 2019, regardless of whether it has reached an agreement with the EU. The withdrawal of Brexit is legally feasible. British Prime Minister Teresa May announced in May that after leaving the EU, the UK will not seek to maintain its position as a single European market or a permanent member of the Customs Union. She promised to abolish the 1972 "European Community Law" and incorporate existing EU law into the UK's domestic legal system. The Brexit negotiations were officially launched on June 19, 2017.
 
On January 1, 1973, the United Kingdom joined the European Community. The 1975 referendum confirmed that the United Kingdom became a member of the European Community. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Brexit proposal was mainly proposed by the Labor Party and trade unionists. Since the 1990s, the main proponents have been the newly formed British Independence Party (UKIP) and the Conservative Party's Brexit. Brexit supporters span a broad political spectrum. Support for Brexit includes supporters of the Brexit Party, the British Independence Party, the majority of the Conservatives and the Minority Labour Party.
 
Comparison of vote rates in the 1975 referendum and the 2016 referendum to stay in the EC/EU
The United Kingdom joined the European Community (predecessor of the European Union) in 1973 and held a referendum in 1975 whether it should remain in the European Community. As a result, more than half of the voters supported the stay in the European Community.
 
However, there is always a strong European scepticism in the UK (against the EU and its predecessor, the European Community). No matter whether the Conservative Party or the Labor Party is on the EU issue, the party is not uniform (but in general, the majority of the Labour Party members support the EU, and conservative The party has different opinions, and both support and opposition to the EU have a certain ratio. However, the Conservative Party’s consensus is to oppose the United Kingdom to transfer more power to the EU and demand more power from the EU, such as re-implementing immigration and border control. Power), and there are also political parties that the British Independent Party explicitly advocates withdrawing from the EU.
 
In 2013, British Prime Minister David Cameron said that if the Conservative Party wins in the 2015 general election, it will hold a referendum on whether to withdraw from the EU before 2017. After the Conservative Party won the general election in 2015, Cameron immediately announced that the British withdrawal from the EU referendum will be held on June 23, 2016, and indicated that it supports the UK to stay in the EU and actually leads the "Leaving Europe" camp. .
 
After the date of the announcement of the Brexit referendum by David Cameron, the Brexit camp has not had any iconic representative to promote the Brexit, such as Nigel Farage, the leader of the British Independent Party who has been pushing the UK away from the EU for many years. It has long been a newcomer in China, but it has not been a mainstream politician in the UK. It is not representative. Until the mayor of London, Boris Johnson, announced his support for leaving the EU, the support for the Brexit camp has increased significantly. Johnson expressed his support for leaving the EU. Later, the Conservative Party supporters who had always opposed the EU were willing to ignore Cameron’s advice and support the Brexit. Johnson also actually became the representative of the leader of the “Brexit” camp.
 
Britain to stay in the EU referendum:
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum to leave the European Union. The result of the vote was “out of the EU”. Shortly after the results of the referendum were announced, the British Prime Minister David Cameron, who claimed to stay in the EU, resigned.
 
Cameron period
Cameron supported the stay in Europe before the referendum, and Cameron announced his resignation as the British Prime Minister after the referendum on June 23, and officially resigned on July 13, when the British Home Secretary Teresa · May succeeds Cameron as the new British prime minister.
 
Teresa May
In January 2017, the British government submitted a draft of the “Exit EU Notice Act” to the House of Commons, which authorized the British government to initiate a process of separation from the European Union. On February 1, the House of Commons voted on the second reading of the bill, with 498 votes and 114 votes against [12]. On February 8, the House of Commons voted for the third time, with 494 votes and 122 votes against.
 
Start the Brexit process:
The House of Lords voted on March 1 and 7 to join two amendments, and the bill was sent back to the House of Commons for reconsideration. The House of Commons on March 13 by 335 votes to 287 votes to veto the protection of the House of Lords in the British EU citizens to amend the terms, and 331 votes to 286 votes to veto the Congress by the House of Lords can veto the Brexit clause, the bill again Submitted to the House of Lords for consideration. The House of Lords voted to abandon the two amendments on the evening of March 13th, allowing the bill to be formally passed in Congress. On March 16, Queen Elizabeth II signed the decree [16]. On March 20th, the British Prime Minister’s Office announced that it will officially start the Brexit process on March 29.
 
On March 28th, British Prime Minister Teresa May signed a six-page notification letter to the European Union in the Prime Minister's Office. The United Kingdom decided to start the Brexit procedure in accordance with Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. On March 29, the notice was handed over to the President of the European Council, Tusk, by the British Ambassador to the European Union Barrow.
 
On December 8, 2017, the UK and the EU reached a framework for the Brexit framework, paving the way for trade negotiations.
 
On November 13, 2018, after more than a year of negotiations, the UK and the EU reached an agreement on the content of the Brexit agreement.
 
According to the draft agreement, the UK will withdraw from the EU on March 29, 2019, followed by a transition period. During the transition period, the UK will temporarily stay in the EU internal market and customs union. The transition period will last until December 31, 2020. The UK and Europe are striving to sign trade agreements within six months of the end of the transition period. The agreement has not been reached or the UK has requested it before July 1, 2020 to extend the transition period of the Brexit or to allow the entire UK to remain in the EU's customs union. The transition period can be extended once. After the transition period has been extended, the UK must continue to recognize the EU rules, but does not have its own voting rights and is obliged to continue to pay EU membership fees. The United Kingdom concludes an "international agreement" in the field of trade during the transition period and can only enter into force after the end of the transition period.
EU citizens living in the UK are guaranteed health care, pensions and other social benefits. It is also true for Britons who have traveled to other EU countries during the transition period [21].
After the end of the transition period, the UK still has to fulfill all its financial obligations as a member of the European Union. The exact amount of funds has not been determined. By 2020, the UK will continue to participate in the EU's annual financial plan.
Even if the UK and the EU did not negotiate a future trade agreement at the end of the "Brexit" transition period, the border between Britain's Northern Ireland and the EU member state Ireland will remain in a state of no customs and border inspection. Generally referred to as the “Irish Border Protection Measures”.
On November 14, the draft of the Brexit agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union was passed in the British cabinet.
 
After the UK and the EU reached a draft of the Brexit agreement, the opponents were strongly dissatisfied. Dominique Rab, the minister of Brexit, who took office only four months, resigned on the grounds of dissatisfaction with the draft, and the Minister of Work and Pensions, Esther McVeigh, and two other sub-long-ranking officials also resigned [21]. Dominique Rab said in a statement that he could not support the "Brexit" draft agreement with "conscience". He criticized the draft for resolving the Irish border issue and the UK's continued stay in the EU Customs Union, arguing that it would not allow Britain to truly "Brexit." Esther McVeigh said in a statement that the "Brexit" agreement did not respect the outcome of the referendum in the UK. Jacob Rees-Mogg, a senior member of the Conservative Party and a promoter of the "Brexit" movement, publicly proposed a "no confidence vote" against the Prime Minister in the party. He believed that the "Brexit" agreement was the UK's The concession on key rights." However, the two major cabinet members, including Michael Goff, believe that the current removal of the prime minister is out of date.
 
 
The Brexit process:
On November 25th, the leaders of the 27 EU countries unanimously adopted the draft Brexit agreement. The UK survey indicated that 52% of the respondents supported the draft Brexit agreement between Teresa May and the EU, with 19% opposed.
 
On January 15, 2019, the draft Brexit agreement was rejected by the British Parliament with 432 votes and 202 votes.
 
On January 29, 2019, the British Parliament debated and voted on seven amendments to the EU-related agreement. Two of the amendments were passed and the other five failed. One of the amendments adopted was to exclude “no agreement to leave the EU”, but the amendment has a purely suggestive nature; the other is to call for the removal of Irish border safeguards [22] and to use technology for convenient border inspections. The alternative arrangement "resolves the issue of the British-Irish border. British Prime Minister Teresa May will travel to Brussels, the European Union headquarters, to restart negotiations on the draft Brexit agreement, but European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said in Brussels on February 7 that the EU will not "Brexit" with the UK. Agreement renegotiated.
 
On March 6, 2019, the United Kingdom proposed that if the Irish border safeguards were unfortunately initiated, the independent arbitration commission responsible for the UK-European mediation should be authorized to decide when to terminate the measure. However, the EU has determined that this is beyond the scope of the committee's “ensure that the parties follow the rules” and rejects the British proposal.
 
On March 11, 2019, the attitude of the EU suddenly softened and agreed to amend the "Brexit" agreement. The latest Brexit amendments will prevent the UK Northern Ireland region from being “indefinitely staying” in the EU after the “Brexit” transition period.
 
On March 12th, the British House of Commons voted again to reject the revised "Brexit" agreement between the British government and the EU with a vote of 391 votes against 242 votes.
 
On March 13, 2019, the British House of Commons voted to support the complete exclusion of non-agreement of Brexit to prevent the UK from withdrawing from the EU without any agreement on March 29. In the end, with the result of 321 support and 278 votes against the vote, the United Kingdom completely ruled out the non-agreement of Brexit.
 
On March 14, 2019, the British House of Commons decided to postpone the Brexit deadline from the original March 29 to June 30 by postponing the Brexit motion with a vote of 412 in favor and 202 against. However, according to Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, the proposal requires the consent of all EU member states. At present, Brussels has indicated that it will discuss the UK’s request to postpone the Brexit. France says that if the UK does not come up with any plans, it will not agree with the United Kingdom. Claim.
 
On March 19, 2019, the British House of Commons Speaker John Bokau quoted the British Parliament rules passed 400 years ago, announcing that the draft of the Brexit agreement had not changed substantially, and refused to accept the draft Brexit agreement in Parliament. Second vote.
 
On March 21, 2019, the leaders of the 27 EU countries agreed to postpone the Brexit until May 22, but only if the British Parliament needs to pass the Brexit agreement within a week. If the British Parliament is unable to pass the Brexit agreement within the next week, the UK will leave the EU on April 12 according to law.
 
On March 25th, the House of Commons of the British Parliament passed the amendment with 329 to 302 votes, which led the parliament to replace the government to lead the Brexit process.
 
On March 27th, the House of Commons of the British Parliament confirmed the removal of the original Brexit date from the law with 441 votes in favor and 105 votes against it, and agreed to postpone the Brexit date.
 
On March 29, 2019, the British government's draft of the Brexit Agreement was rejected by the House of Representatives for the third time with 286 votes in favor and 344 votes against. The UK must propose a new plan by April 12, otherwise it will automatically leave the EU.
 
On April 1, 2019, due to the unsuccessful agreement of the British Parliament, the European Parliament will hold a special meeting on April 10 to discuss the Brexit.
 
On April 3, 2019, the House of Commons of the British Parliament voted with 310 votes, 310 votes against it, and the result of the vote against Speaker John Boko decided to continue to indicate the Brexit program from April 8. vote. The last deadlock in the House of Commons and the vote of the key vote by the Speaker appeared in 1993; ironically, the issue at the time was the Maastricht Treaty that formed the cornerstone of the European Union. On the same day, the House of Commons supported 313 votes and 312 votes against asking Prime Minister Teresa May to seek a further extension of Brexit.
 
On April 4, 2019, British Prime Minister Teresa May announced that he would once again seek to delay the Brexit in order to gain time to reach a Brexit plan with the opposition British Labor Party.
 
On April 10, 2019, the EU took the initiative to express to the UK that the Brexit deadline could be significantly extended to October 31 instead of the original June 30. It also allowed the UK to leave the EU at any time after the British Parliament officially passed the Brexit Agreement. .
 
On May 24, 2019, Teresa May announced that he would resign from the position of Conservative Party leader on June 7 due to the fact that British Prime Minister Teresa May could not reach a consensus with Westminster on the "Decoup Agreement". . It also announced that it will start the election of the party leader on June 10, and will serve as the prime minister in the capacity of the caretaker cabinet.
 
On June 7, Teresa May resigned as a party leader.
 
On July 23, 2019, after the election of the Conservative Party members, the parliamentary ruling party voted, the former British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson was elected as the new Conservative Party leader with more than half of the votes. At the same time, Theresa May officially resigned as prime minister, and assigned responsibility and Brexit to Boris.
 
Johnson period
On August 20th, Prime Minister Boris Johnson asked the EU to cancel the Irish border protection clause from the Brexit agreement and was rejected by the EU.
 
By convention, the British Parliament has entered a recess after September to open a new session. On August 28, 2019, Boris Johnson announced that he had requested the Queen to extend the three-week recess for three weeks, that is, from September 10 to October 14. Since then, when Members want to seek legislation to prevent non-agreement of Brexit before the Brexit deadline on October 31, it will be quite difficult in terms of time. Johnson’s move led to criticism from the Europeans that Johnson was against democracy; more than 1 million British netizens signed an online petition against the suspension of parliamentary operations; more than 30 cities in the UK
外汇代理
 


(责任编辑:CAPSTONE凯石)-更多凯石外汇优惠活动,点击查看:https://www.fxcgprime.com/bonus/forex-bonus/

您需要什么帮助? 立即联系我们